संस्कृत: Upanishads

| proper noun |

The Upanishads, commonly referred to as Vedānta, are a collection of ancient Sanskrit spiritual texts that interpret sacred Vedic thought. They contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. Among the most important literature in the history of Indian religions and culture, the Upanishads played an important role in the development of spiritual ideas in ancient India, marking a transition from Vedic ritualism to new ideas and institutions. Of all Vedic literature, the Upanishads alone are widely known, and their central ideas are at the spiritual core of Hindus. Historically, the first Upanishads were associated with the Vedas. For example, Atareya Upanishads and Kausitaki Upanishads were associated with Rig Veda. There are 14 main Upanishads are known as mukhya and there are more than 200 more Upanishads (of which the Yoga Upanishads belongs). The Yoga Upanishads are 11 in total and describe the significance of the meridians (nadi) and energy centres (chakra) as well as the practice of mantra meditations, yoga postures (asana) and breathing (pranayama).

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